Tracy Holsclaw, Ujjaini Alam, Bruno Sanso, Herbert Lee, Katrin Heitmann, Salman Habib, & David Higdon (2010). Nonparametric Dark Energy Reconstruction from Supernova Data Phys. Rev. Lett. arXiv: 1011.3079v1

The abstract:

Understanding the origin of the accelerated expansion of the Universe poses one of the greatest challenges in physics today. Lacking a compelling fundamental theory to test, observational efforts are targeted at a better characterization of the underlying cause. If a new form of mass-energy, dark energy, is driving the acceleration, the redshift evolution of the equation of state parameter w(z) will hold essential clues as to its origin. To best exploit data from observations it is necessary to develop a robust and accurate reconstruction approach, with controlled errors, for w(z). We introduce a new, nonparametric method for solving the associated statistical inverse problem based on Gaussian process modeling and Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling. Applying this method to recent supernova measurements, we reconstruct the continuous history of w out to redshift z=1.5.

As the paper says, “In order to extract useful information from cosmological data, a reliable and robust reconstruction method for w(z) [the equation of state parameter] is crucial”, and that’s what this paper aims to provide. It’s not the most exciting thing you’ll ever read (although it is short), but without work along these lines, much of cosmology and astrophysics is actually pretty meaningless, so it’s certainly worth remembering that.

For more, see Statistical modeling could help us understand cosmic acceleration.

Valeri P. Frolov, & Shinji Mukohyama (2010). Brane Holes arXiv arXiv: 1012.4541v1

The abstract:

The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that in models with large extra dimensions under special conditions one can extract information from the interior of 4D black holes. For this purpose we study an induced geometry on a test brane in the background of a higher dimensional static black string or a black brane. We show that at the intersection surface of the test brane and the bulk black string/brane the induced metric has an event horizon, so that the test brane contains a black hole. We call it a brane hole. … We discuss thermodynamic properties of brane holes and interesting questions which arise when such an extra dimensional channel for the information mining exists.

Who doesn’t love higher dimensional solutions for black holes? Honestly, I haven’t had time to give this a thorough read yet but it looks rather promising.

For more, see Cosmologists Discover How Black Holes Can Leak.

]]>The Milky Way Project aims to sort and measure our galaxy, the Milky Way. Initially we’re asking you to help us find and draw bubbles in beautiful infrared data from the Spitzer Space Telescope.

Understanding the cold, dusty material that we see in these images, helps scientists to learn how stars form and how our galaxy changes and evolves with time.

The GalaxyZoo project expands! Help astronomers out when you’re feeling in the mood to procrastinate.

GREAT10, a simulation challenge that aims to improve image analysis algorithms for cosmic gravitational lensing.

GREAT10 is a way for astronomers, astrophysicists, computer vision, and AI people to come together and find new ways of solving problems. Contest details are online.

For more, see Computer Geeks: Compete to Help NASA Explain Dark Energy.

From CERN Bulletin:

After a very fast switchover from protons to lead ions, the LHC has achieved performances that allowed the machine to exceed both peak and integrated luminosity by a factor of three. Thanks to this, experiments have been able to produce high-profile results on ion physics almost immediately, confirming that the LHC was able to keep its promises for ions as well as for protons.

Another milestone finished; it’s been a great year for the LHC.

For more, see CERN Bulletin.

GravityGeek is a cooperative project to help encourage interaction amongst physicists in gravitation/general relativity with journalists and the public.

GravityGeek, the beta collaboration/networking site for professionals in general relativity, quantum gravity, cosmology, etc., has recommendations for Christmas/other gift giving, in case you have a physicist to buy for (as well as non-technical recommendations for kids and those who just like good popular science literature).

For more, see The GravityGeek Mission.

Abhay Ashtekar, Frans Pretorius, & Fethi M. Ramazanoğlu (2010). Surprises in the Evaporation of 2-Dimensional Black Holes arXiv arXiv: 1011.6442v1

The abstract:

Quantum evaporation of Callen-Giddings-Harvey-Strominger (CGHS) black holes is analyzed in the mean field approximation. The resulting semi-classical theory incorporates back reaction. Detailed analytical and numerical calculations show that, while some of the assumptions underlying the standard evaporation paradigm are borne out, several are not. Furthermore, if the black hole is initially macroscopic, the evaporation process exhibits remarkable universal properties. Although the literature on CGHS black holes is quite rich, these features had escaped previous analyses, in part because of lack of required numerical precision, and in part because certain properties and symmetries of the model were not recognized. Finally, our results provide support for the full quantum scenario recently developed by Ashtekar, Taveras and Varadarajan.

This is fairly nice for something so dense to read (it’s a lot crammed into four pages). The key result: for 2D black holes, information in the matter profile on Ī⁻R will not all be recovered at Ī⁺R, in generality. Slight twists on our understanding of 2D black holes *might* be suggestive of solutions in 4D. Of course, the usual problems of discussing anything in 2D are still there, but still…

The big topic of the past few weeks has been Roger Penrose and V.G. Gurzadyan’s November paper, suggesting there was evidence, via circle matching in the CMB, of a cyclic cosmology. There are so many papers being discussed right now, that this requires it’s own section. Now, because Penrose being a co-author makes any paper big news, mainstream media was all over this “evidence for time before time” (and other completely offensive and nonsensical catchphrases). What Gurzadyan and Penrose believed they had shown was that patterns in the CMB could not fit with standard inflationary cosmology and were strongly suggestive of a cyclic cosmology – ie. multiple “big bangs” (so *our *big bang wasn’t the first/didn’t start the cosmic clock, so to speak). Now, many people who’ve *looked for circles* in the CMB (because it *could* be very suggestive of the topology/geometry/history of the universe) were sceptical of this, because, unfortunately, patterns in the CMB are a little like bible codes. If you’re just looking for *something*, with a data set that big, you’re bound to find it and it doesn’t make it at all meaningful. Doubters appeared quickly on the arXiv and in blogs, and Gurzadyan and Penrose quickly responded in kind (see NASA, this is how it’s supposed to work). Below are the papers in the discussion as it stands, from November 16th to today:

V. G. Gurzadyan, & R. Penrose (2010). Concentric circles in WMAP data may provide evidence of violent pre-Big-Bang activity arXiv arXiv: 1011.3706v1

I. K. Wehus, & H. K. Eriksen (2010). A search for concentric circles in the 7-year WMAP temperature sky maps arXiv arXiv: 1012.1268v1

Adam Moss, Douglas Scott, & James P. Zibin (2010). No evidence for anomalously low variance circles on the sky arXiv arXiv: 1012.1305v1

V. G. Gurzadyan, & R. Penrose (2010). More on the low variance circles in CMB sky arXiv arXiv: 1012.1486v1

Amir Hajian (2010). Are There Echoes From The Pre-Big Bang Universe? A Search for Low Variance Circles in the CMB Sky arXiv arXiv: 1012.1656v1

Basically, the critiques (1 & 2) go as follows: Yes, the patterns you’re seeing are really there, but they don’t mean what you think they mean. They’re just random, it’s not significant. Response: No, you don’t understand, they are significant, we have proof here. They can’t be random, it’s not a Gaussian distribution. Critique 3: No, I just checked, my Monte Carlo simulations showed they were random, sorry.

Honestly, it’s hard to believe, based on what has been shown, that these *patterns *are anything meaningful, but the discussion is certainly not over, and I’m sure that there will be many more papers being written on this, well into the new year.

For more, see Nature News: No evidence of time before Big Bang.

]]>Bin-Nun, A. (2010). Gravitational lensing of stars orbiting Sgr A* as a probe of the black hole metric in the Galactic center Physical Review D, 82 (6) DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.82.064009

From the abstract:

We show that a possible astrophysical experiment, detection of lensed images of stars orbiting close to Sgr A*, can provide insight into the form of the metric around a black hole. We model Sgr A* as a black hole and add in a 1/r

^{2}term to the Schwarzschild metric near the black hole. … This knowledge will be useful in constraining any modified gravity theory that adds a similar term into the strong field near a black hole.

Sounds too good to be true? It’s hard to say, but a technique to observationally determine the spacetime metric would be awfully exciting (and huge – to classical/quantum relativists, that is).

For more, see Black Hole May Offer Clues to Extra Dimensions.

Marinoni, C., & Buzzi, A. (2010). A geometric measure of dark energy with pairs of galaxies Nature, 468 (7323), 539-541 DOI: 10.1038/nature09577

From the abstract:

There is a purely geometric test of the expansion of the Universe (the Alcock–Paczynski test), which would provide an independent way of investigating the abundance () and equation of state () of dark energy. … Here we report an analysis of the symmetry properties of distant pairs of galaxies from archival data. This allows us to determine that the Universe is flat…

Speaking of *observing *metrics… this is a lot less exciting, however, as it takes in many more assumptions about the basic nature of the universe, galaxy distances, and, of course, dark energy.

For more, see Distant Galaxies Confirm Dark Energy’s Existence and Universe’s Flatness, Dark Energy Theory Gets a Boost From New Galactic Measurements, Cosmology: Geometry of the Universe.

Davoudiasl, H., Morrissey, D., Sigurdson, K., & Tulin, S. (2010). Unified Origin for Baryonic Visible Matter and Antibaryonic Dark Matter Physical Review Letters, 105 (21) DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.105.211304

The abstract:

We present a novel mechanism for generating both the baryon and dark matter densities of the Universe. A new Dirac fermion X carrying a conserved baryon number charge couples to the standard model quarks as well as a GeV-scale hidden sector. CP-violating decays of X, produced nonthermally in low-temperature reheating, sequester antibaryon number in the hidden sector, thereby leaving a baryon excess in the visible sector. The antibaryonic hidden states are stable dark matter. A spectacular signature of this mechanism is the baryon-destroying inelastic scattering of dark matter that can annihilate baryons at appreciable rates relevant for nucleon decay searches.

This is a surprisingly practical one (and really should be classified as *high energy*): A UBC team has proposed a new fermion that could explain dark matter, while linking to regular matter and the Standard Model. Signatures related to this *fermion X* should be detectable, in the right experiment, making it a target for future searches.

For more, see The X factor, UBC physicists make atoms and dark matter add up.

Lucchesi, D., & Peron, R. (2010). Accurate Measurement in the Field of the Earth of the General-Relativistic Precession of the LAGEOS II Pericenter and New Constraints on Non-Newtonian Gravity Physical Review Letters, 105 (23) DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.105.231103

From the abstract:

The pericenter shift of a binary system represents a suitable observable to test for possible deviations from the Newtonian inverse-square law in favor of new weak interactions between macroscopic objects. We analyzed 13 years of tracking data of the LAGEOS satellites with GEODYN II software but with no models for general relativity. From the fit of LAGEOS II pericenter residuals we have been able to obtain a 99.8% agreement with the predictions of Einstein’s theory

It’s always nice to see confirmations of general relativity, especially when they help put limits on possible deviations from the theory, ie. in this case, a Yukawa-like potential would have to have strength ≲1×10^{-11}.

For more, see Via satellite.

From the Press Release:

Geneva, 26 November 2010.After less than three weeks of heavy-ion running, the three experiments studying lead ion collisions at the LHC have already brought new insight into matter as it would have existed in the very first instants of the Universe’s life. The ALICE experiment, which is optimised for the study of heavy ions, published two papers just a few days after the start of lead-ion running. Now, the first direct observation of a phenomenon known as jet quenching has been made by both the ATLAS and CMS collaborations.

Papers from the start of heavy-ion run are beginning to appear; it’s exciting that everything is working ideally, although *really exciting *results are still a ways off.

For more, see LHC experiments bring new insight into primordial universe, ATLAS Scientists catch glimpse of the Primordial Universe.

Eugenio Bianchi (2010). Black Hole Entropy, Loop Gravity, and Polymer Physics arXiv arXiv: 1011.5628v1

The abstract:

Loop Gravity provides a microscopic derivation of Black Hole entropy. In this paper, I show that the microstates counted admit a semiclassical description in terms of shapes of a tessellated horizon. The counting of microstates and the computation of the entropy can be done via a mapping to an equivalent statistical mechanical problem: the counting of conformations of a closed polymer chain. This correspondence suggests a number of intriguing relations between the thermodynamics of Black Holes and the physics of polymers.

The latest hot topic in gravity correspondences: Combining de Gennes-esque polymer physics techniques with black hole thermodynamics (as if I didn’t already have a big crush on Bianchi). There is very little about this that isn’t exciting.

]]>Davis, R. (2010). Fundamental constants: Big G revisited Nature, 468 (7321), 181-183 DOI: 10.1038/468181b

From the abstract:

Measuring Newton’s constant of gravitation is a difficult task, because gravity is the weakest of all the fundamental forces. An experiment involving two simple pendulums provides a seemingly accurate but surprising value.

For more, see Fundamental constants: Big G revisted.

Galaxy Zoo (2010). Galaxy Zoo Supernovae arXiv arXiv: 1011.2199v2

This paper presents the first results from a new citizen science project: Galaxy Zoo Supernovae which, with 2500 volunteers, has categorized almost 14,000 supernovae candidates.

For more, see Galaxy Zoo paper goes supernova.

From the Press Release:

This composite image shows a supernova within the galaxy M100 that may contain the youngest known black hole in our cosmic neighborhood. In this image, Chandra’s X-rays are colored gold, while optical data from ESO’s Very Large Telescope are shown in red, green, and blue, and infrared data from Spitzer are red. The location of the supernova, known as SN 1979C, is labeled… This approximately 30-year age, plus its relatively close distance, makes SN 1979C the nearest example where the birth of a black hole has been observed, if the interpretation by the scientists is correct.

Sure, black holes can have finite age, that seems perfectly reasonable… well no, not really. The “age” of a black hole is an exceptionally complicated, verging on philosophical, matter that I’ll have to write about.

For more, see Black Hole Baby Spotted Being Born, Youngest nearby black hole found, Youngest Nearby Black Hole.

Andresen, G., & et al. (2010). Trapped antihydrogen Nature DOI: 10.1038/nature09610

From the abstract:

Antihydrogen, the bound state of an antiproton and a positron, has been produced

^{2, 3}at low energies at CERN (the European Organization for Nuclear Research) since 2002. Antihydrogen is of interest for use in a precision test of nature’s fundamental symmetries. … Here we demonstrate trapping of antihydrogen atoms. …This result opens the door to precision measurements on anti-atoms, which can soon be subjected to the same techniques as developed for hydrogen.

For more, see Antiatoms Bottled for First Time, Antimatter atoms held captive by physicists.

V. G. Gurzadyan, & R. Penrose (2010). Concentric circles in WMAP data may provide evidence of violent pre-Big-Bang activity arXiv arXiv: 1011.3706v1

From the abstract:

Conformal cyclic cosmology (CCC) posits the existence of an aeon preceding our Big Bang ‘B’, whose conformal infinity ‘I’ is identified, conformally, with ‘B’, now regarded as a spacelike 3-surface. Black-hole encounters, within bound galactic clusters in that previous aeon, would have the observable effect, in our CMB sky, of families of concentric circles over which the temperature variance is anomalously low, the centre of each such family representing the point of ‘I’ at which the cluster converges… These observational predictions of CCC would not be easily explained within standard inflationary cosmology.

A very interesting, and easily misinterpreted paper, co-authored by the great Roger Penrose is the major buzz of this week. It doesn’t imply anything about “before the universe” knowledge, which would be unphysical, but it does say that if we lived in a certain type of cyclic universe, with multiple contractions and expansions (initiated by “Big Bangs”) throughout its history, we might be able to see evidence of those contraction/expansion cycles in the CMB. Do we see that evidence? Maybe. Pattern matching in the CMB is able to show a lot of people a lot of different results that don’t fit in to the standard inflationary scheme, but none with a very high level of confidence. Basically, inflation isn’t quite right, we might live in a cyclic universe, but we also might not.

For more, see Penrose claims to have glimpsed universe before Big Bang, Have we found the universe that existed *before* the Big Bang? (I’ll answer that one: No).

Belgiorno, F., Cacciatori, S., Clerici, M., Gorini, V., Ortenzi, G., Rizzi, L., Rubino, E., Sala, V., & Faccio, D. (2010). Hawking Radiation from Ultrashort Laser Pulse Filaments Physical Review Letters, 105 (20) DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.105.203901

Abstract:

Event horizons of astrophysical black holes and gravitational analogues have been predicted to excite the quantum vacuum and give rise to the emission of quanta, known as Hawking radiation. We experimentally create such a gravitational analogue using ultrashort laser pulse filaments and our measurements demonstrate a spontaneous emission of photons that confirms theoretical predictions.

For more, see Physicists Create Black Hole ‘Light’ in Lab, New horizons for Hawking radiation.

Alberto S. Cattaneo, & Florian Schaetz (2010). Introduction to supergeometry arXiv arXiv: 1011.3401v1

The abstract:

These notes are based on a series of lectures given by the first author at the school of `Poisson 2010′, held at IMPA, Rio de Janeiro. They contain an exposition of the theory of super- and graded manifolds, cohomological vector fields, graded symplectic structures, reduction and the AKSZ-formalism.

Benjamin Bahr, Bianca Dittrich, & Song He (2010). Coarse graining theories with gauge symmetries arXiv arXiv: 1011.3667v1

The abstract:

Discretizations of continuum theories often do not preserve the gauge symmetry content. This occurs in particular for diffeomorphism symmetry in general relativity, which leads to severe difficulties both in canonical and covariant quantization approaches. We discuss here the method of perfect actions, which attempts to restore gauge symmetries by mirroring exactly continuum physics on a lattice via a coarse graining process. Analytical results can only be obtained via a perturbative approach, for which we consider the first steps, namely the coarse graining of the linearized theory. The linearized gauge symmetries are exact also in the discretized theory, hence we develop a formalism to deal with gauge systems. Finally we provide a discretization of linearized gravity as well as a coarse graining map and show that with this choice the 3D linearized gravity action is invariant under coarse graining.

Veronika E. Hubeny (2010). The Fluid/Gravity Correspondence: a new perspective on the Membrane Paradigm arXiv arXiv: 1011.4948v1

From the abstract:

This talk gives an overview of the recently-formulated Fluid/Gravity correspondence, which was developed in the context of gauge/gravity duality. Mathematically, it posits that Einstein’s equations (with negative cosmological constant) in d+1 dimensions capture the (generalized) Navier-Stokes equations in d dimensions. Given an arbitrary fluid dynamical solution, we can systematically construct a corresponding asymptotically AdS black hole spacetime with a regular horizon whose properties mimic that of the fluid flow. Apart from an overview of this construction, we describe some of its applications. The presentation is intended for a broad audience of relativists, and does not assume prior knowledge of string theory or gauge/gravity duality.

This is just beautiful.

]]>Lisa J. Kewley, David Rupke, H. Jabran Zahid, Margaret J. Geller, & Elizabeth J. Barton (2010). Metallicity Gradients and Gas Flows in Galaxy Pairs arXiv DOI: 1008.2204

Astrophysicists had suspected that galaxies must have some mechanism for mixing metal-poor gas from their outskirts with metal-rich gas in their centres to explain the amount of star formation that seemed to occurs. Now, a team at the University of Hawaii, Honolulu, has observed this process in eight spiral galaxies that have a close “neighbour” galaxy. It appears that interacting galaxies have an easier time of sharing the heavy metals around than galaxies that are alone.

From the authors:

These observations provide the first solid evidence that metallicity gradients in interacting galaxies are systematically different from metallicity gradients in isolated spiral galaxies. Our results suggest that there is a strong relationship between metallicity gradients and the gas dynamics in galaxy interactions and mergers.

Why it occurs, is still unknown, but it is interesting.

For more, see Galactic Collisions Spread the Wealth.

Mayer L, Kazantzidis S, Escala A, & Callegari S (2010). Direct formation of supermassive black holes via multi-scale gas inflows in galaxy mergers. Nature, 466 (7310), 1082-4 PMID: 20740009

From the abstract:

[W]e report simulations showing that mergers between massive protogalaxies naturally produce the conditions for direct collapse into a supermassive black hole with no need to suppress cooling and star formation. Merger-driven gas inflows give rise to an unstable, massive nuclear gas disk of a few billion solar masses, which funnels more than 10

^{8}solar masses of gas to a sub-parsec-scale gas cloud in only 100,000 years. The cloud undergoes gravitational collapse, which eventually leads to the formation of a massive black hole.

If observations of super massive black holes at the centres of very old galaxies are correct, it would imply that they are able to form faster than current theory allows. The authors of this paper have preformed a simulation, under different initial conditions than previously considered, that does in fact predict supermassive black hole formation directly from the collapse of dense gas clouds. While this fits with *observation* (sort of), it is somewhat unexpected as it hadn’t previously been thought that gas clouds could be dense/massive enough to lead to a supermassive black hole.

For more, see Recipe for a supermassive black hole, Supermassive black holes spawned by galactic merger.

Mikhail Gorchtein, Stefano Profumo, & Lorenzo Ubaldi (2010). Probing Dark Matter with AGN Jets arXiv arXiv: 1008.2230v1

From the abstract:

We study the possibility of detecting a signature of particle dark matter in the spectrum of gamma-ray photons from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) resulting from the scattering of high-energy particles in the AGN jet off of dark matter particles.

In summary, if dark matter exists as a certain type of particle and if we become able to observe and predict active galactic nuclei (really, the particle jets from supermassive black holes) accurately, we might be able to infer the existence of said dark matter particles from the behaviour of the black hole particle jets.

For more, see Black Holes + Dark Matter = Light (New Scientist).

J. K. Webb, J. A. King, M. T. Murphy, V. V. Flambaum, R. F. Carswell, & M. B. Bainbridge (2010). Evidence for spatial variation of the fine structure constant arXiv arXiv: 1008.3907v1

From the abstract:

We previously reported observations of quasar spectra from the Keck telescope suggesting a smaller value of the fine structure constant, alpha, at high redshift. A new sample of 153 measurements from the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT), probing a different direction in the universe, also depends on redshift, but in the opposite sense, that is, alpha appears on average to be larger in the past.

This is really the hot topic for the week (and the previous week): further observations of a changing fine-structure constant (*α)*! I probably should have included it with “astrophysics”, but its implications for high energy physics are too important to ignore, as it characterizes the strength of electromagnetic interactions. Over the past decade, there has been a body of work building up arguing for and against, both observational and theoretical, suggestions that the fine-structure constant is not really constant.

The fine-structure constant helps to quantify how tightly electrons can hold on to atoms, so if it had been different earlier in the life of our universe, we should be able to see it in the frequencies that atoms were emitting/absorbing light. In 1999, Webb and the Keck Telescope team in Hawaii noted the first observation that *α* might not be so constant. Since then, many contradictory results have appeared. The latest results from Keck are quite the puzzle though. While previous observations have suggested *α *may change temporally, Webb’s latest observations suggest that it also has a spatial variation – ie. looking back in time in one direction sees a smaller fine-structure constant and looking back in time in the opposite direction sees a larger fine-structure constant. This is just baffling. While there currently isn’t any evidence to suggest some systematic error leading to these results, there is also no good theoretical reason to explain them either.

It is possible that we just happen to be in this happy *minima *in our universe where the fine-structure constant works just perfect for EM-interactions leading to matter and life… but it’s also possible that this is just all wrong.

For more, see Ye cannae change the laws of physics.

Harold V. Parks, & James E. Faller (2010). A Simple Pendulum Determination of the Gravitational Constant Phys. Rev. Let arXiv: 1008.3203v2

Getting a lot of discussion this week is the latest “G” measurement from Parks and Faller. They measured the gravitational constant to be 6.67234 × 10^{−11} m^{3} kg^{−1} s^{−2}, with an uncertainty of 21 p.p.m., which happens to be **10 standard deviations lower **than the last *good* measurement in 2000 by Jens Gundlach and Stephen Merkowitz who obtained G = 6.674215 × 10^{−11} m^{3} kg^{−1} s^{−2}, with an uncertainty of 14 p.p.m.. How on earth can this happen? No one believes that G is changing, but why can’t we get a consistent measurement? This is a serious and strange question, and one that I don’t have a good answer to.

For more, see G-whizzes disagree over gravity, Measuring Gravity: Ain’t Nothin’ but a G Thing (best post title ever?).

L. Borsten, D. Dahanayake, M. J. Duff, A. Marrani, & W. Rubens (2010). Four-qubit entanglement from string theory Physical Review Letters arXiv: 1005.4915v2

The abstract, short and sweet:

We invoke the black hole/qubit correspondence to derive the classification of four-qubit entanglement. The U-duality orbits resulting from timelike reduction of string theory from D=4 to D=3 yield 31 entanglement families, which reduce to nine up to permutation of the four qubits.

Basically, the authors are able to make some new predictions about four-qubit entangled systems using black hole/qubit correspondence (via string theory), that can be experimentally tested. From author Mike Duff:

If experiments prove that our predictions about quantum entanglement are correct, this will demonstrate that string theory ‘works’ to predict the behaviour of entangled quantum systems.

This isn’t a “if our predictions are correct about entanglement, string theory is correct” statement, this is a “if our predictions are correct about entanglement, black hole/qubit correspondence from string theory is useful” statement.

For more, see New study suggests researchers can now test the ‘theory of everything’.

]]>