Author: Laura Ray

This Week in PLOS Medicine: Atherosclerosis & Air Pollution, Non-melanoma Skin Cancer, & the Scottish Alcohol Industry

Image Credit: Flickr Jennifer Barnard

Image Credit: Flickr Jennifer Barnard

This week PLOS Medicine published articles ranging from research on the link between air pollution and atherosclerosis to a case study of the Scottish alcohol industry’s effect on public policy.

In a prospective cohort study, Sara Adar and colleagues found that decreasing levels of fine particulate matter in multiple US urban areas are associated with slowed progression of intima-medial thickness, a surrogate measure of atherosclerosis. Nino Künzli contextualized these findings as some of the first human evidence for the impact of air pollution on the development of atherosclerosis.

In a prospective study, Jiali Han and colleagues found a modestly increased risk of subsequent malignancies among individuals with a history of non-melanoma skin cancer, specifically breast and lung cancer in women and melanoma in both men and women.

Jim McCambridge and colleagues analyzed industry submissions to a Scottish Government consultation on whole population approaches to alcohol policy. The authors noted that studies of the nature of alcohol industry and other corporate influences on public policies can be informed by work already conducted on the tobacco industry.

In honor of the WHO’s World Immunization Week, the PLOS Medicine homepage features a selection of recent research and policy articles on vaccination.

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This Week in PLOS Medicine: Preeclampsia & Diabetes, Ugandan Trauma Centers, & Sodium Bicarbonate during Open Heart Surgery

Image Credit: Flickr torbakhopper

This week PLOS Medicine featured research and discussion on Preeclampsia as a risk factor for diabetes. A case study of trauma centers in post-conflict Uganda and research on prophylactic sodium bicarbonate during open heart surgery were also published.

Denice Feig and colleagues assessed the association between gestational diabetes, gestational hypertension, and preeclampsia and the development of future diabetes in a database analysis of pregnant women in Ontario, Canada. The findings suggest that both preeclampsia and gestational hypertension without gestational diabetes are associated with a 2-fold increased incidence of diabetes in the years following pregnancy, after controlling for several important variables. Thach Tran discusses the results and whether women with a history of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy should be screened for diabetes.

In a double-blinded randomized controlled trial, Anja Haase-Fielitz and colleagues found that an infusion of sodium bicarbonate during open heart surgery did not reduce the risk for acute kidney injury, compared with saline control. The researchers stress the need for discontinuation of this prophylactic therapy.

As one article in an ongoing series on Global Mental Health Practice, Etheldreda Nakimuli-Mpungu and colleagues describe a private-public partnership that implemented and scaled psycho-trauma centers in Northern Uganda. This case study offers valuable information on treating depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and other mental, neurological, and substance use disorders in post-conflict low- and middle-income countries.

In light of this week’s articles on mental health, diabetes, and heart disease, PLOS Medicine reminds readers of our call for papers into research and commentary on noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) directed toward improving population health and reducing health disparities. Information on open calls can be found here.

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This Week in PLOS Medicine: ART in South Africa, Herpes Zoster Vaccine, & PRISMA

Image Credit: Flickr Horia Varlan

Image Credit: Flickr Horia Varlan

PLOS Medicine published three articles this week, spanning research topics from life expectancy on ART in South Africa to the shingles vaccine for US seniors.

Leigh Johnson and colleagues estimated the life expectancies of HIV positive South African adults who are taking antiretroviral therapy by using information from 6 programmes between 2001 and 2010. Their findings suggest that in South Africa, patients starting ART have life expectancies around 80% of normal life expectancy, provided that they start treatment before their CD4 count drops below 200 cells/µl.

Sinead Marie Langan and colleagues studied a cohort of more than 750,000 individuals aged 65 years or more to assess whether herpes zoster vaccine is effective against incident zoster and post-herpetic neuralgia in an older population. Their findings highlight the need to increase shingles vaccination among elderly individuals in the US and could inform policy makers in countries that are currently considering the introduction of routine shingles vaccination.

Elaine Beller and colleagues from the PRISMA for Abstracts group provided reporting guidelines for abstracts of systematic reviews in journals and at conferences. Other PLOS Medicine articles on PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) are also highlighted on the Medicine homepage.

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This Week in PLOS Medicine: HIV Self-Testing, Intimate Partner Femicide, Infectious Disease Surveillance, & More

 

Image Credit: Flickr jonrawlinson

Image Credit: Flickr jonrawlinson

PLOS Medicine published four new articles this week on topics ranging from a research article on intimate partner femicide in South Africa to a commentary on the global disparities of pain management.

By systematically reviewing the literature, Nitika Pant Pai and colleagues assess the evidence base for HIV self-tests both with and without supervision.

Naeemah Abrahams and colleagues compare the incidence of female homicide in women aged over 14 years in South Africa in 1999 and 2009 and analyze the fatal violent attacks perpetrated by intimate partners.

Simon Hay and colleagues discuss the potential and challenges of producing continually updated infectious disease risk maps using diverse and large volume data sources such as social media.

Veronique Fraser and colleagues call for a concerted global effort to reduce global inequalities in untreated pain which must attend to the complexity of pain and promote multimodal, multidisciplinary pain management.

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