Give us this day a fix for the GMO battles?
Two papers published in the last week were signal events for agricultural genomics. First was the draft of the huge, and hugely complex, genome of bread wheat, the staff of life for 30 percent of humanity. The other, from Chinese scientists reporting advanced gene editing of bread wheat to make it resist the fungal pathogen powdery mildew, claims to have brought us a technical method for reducing the political battles over GMOs–genetically modified organisms.
I’m doubtful, but let’s see.
I wrote about the bread wheat papers in my Tuesday column for the Genetic Literacy Project. I won’t recap much here, except to note that wheat’s promiscuity over the past several hundred thousand years is unusually wanton even in the permissive plant Kingdom. The more-than-usually incestuous result has been bread that tastes heavenly but has made the work lives of genome sequencers hellish.
Unlike corn crops, where it’s nearly impossible to find examples that are not GMOs, almost no wheat is genetically engineered. Agricultural researchers are excited about the wheat genome project because having even a draft version will be a big help to conventional breeding.
There are good reasons to bestow new traits on wheat. Not just disease resistance, as in the Chinese example, but especially resistance to drought. Wheat needs to be better equipped for the hotter, drier planet our descendants will have to live with.
Comment on the powdery mildew paper has centered on the its methodology: CRISPR (clustered regularly interspersed short palindromic repeats), which can be viewed, the commentators say, as a natural process. A sort of mutation. CRISPR, one of Science‘s “Breakthroughs of the Year” in 2013, is a trendy darling just now. At Gene Expression, Razib Khan wrote in March, “This may indeed be a world-turned-upside-down moment, and CRISPR may finally cash out the promise that biological science is going to result in a flowering of engineering analogous to what occurred during physics’ ‘atomic age.’”
And what is CRISPR?
CRISPR is a new genetic engineering method, one of a group often called advanced gene editing. It is based on a kind of adaptive immune system that bacteria invented three billion years ago. Bacteria remember the viruses that have infected them and put together a targeted molecular defense so that the next time the same virus comes around, it is cut up and killed.
CRISPR makes possible targeted modifications of almost any gene. Specific genes can be turned off, turned on, and/or edited. The potential applications of the CRISPR system can hardly be overstated. And it is simpler and cheaper than any other current approach to genome modification.
Irresistible. I described what CRISPR is and how it works and what its future holds–a lot of intriguing and possibly scary stuff, including genetic modifications of Homo sap–in a column I wrote for GLP in February. That piece was triggered by a paper reporting on using CRISPR to create monkey infants with genetic changes.
The Chinese work on powdery mildew in wheat was a (relatively) simple use of CRISPR. The researchers used it to disable three wheat genes that make wheat more vulnerable to the fungus. They inserted no foreign genes.
In a Technology Review post about the research, David Talbot quoted Xing-Wang Deng, who heads a joint research center for plant molecular genetics and agricultural biotech at Peking University and Yale. “And this could be considered as a nontransgenic technology, so that can be very significant. I hope the government would not consider this transgenic, because the end result is no different than a natural mutation.”
CRISPR for genetic modification of wild populations and whole ecosystems?
But other potential uses of gene editing go way beyond natural mutation. At a SciAm Guest Blog last week, Kevin Esvelt, George Church and Jeantine Lunshof urged the use of gene editing “to alter not just domesticated species, but entire wild populations and ecosystems.” They want to edit mosquito DNA to make the insects more resistant to infection by malaria parasites–and thus unable to transmit malaria to people. Another proposal is to return herbicide-resistant weeds to their natural vulnerable state.
Carl Zimmer explained and explored this proposal for mosquito modification in his New York Times column, quoting other scientists who worry that the plan is risky. Church and colleagues say that devising regulations before such a project is launched would reduce the risks, and so would coming up with a Plan B for what to do in case something goes wrong.
In my February column about CRISPR, I described its potential applications for gene therapy, for the study of gene functions, for making epigenetic modifications that can turn genes off and on in precise ways, for “smart bombs” that can target disease-causing bacteria without harming benign bugs, and for making genetically modified animals. That includes attempts at improving humans.
Gene editing may not use traditional biotechnology tools for genetic modification, but it could speed up the process of rewriting genomes–our own included. Do these seem to you like projects that GMO opponents will not oppose because the methodology is novel? They strike me as examples of what my former philosopher colleagues would have called a distinction without a difference.
My guess is that anti-GMO activists are likely to see in these techniques the same potential outcomes that have always driven them nuts, outcomes like control of must-have crop varieties by agribusiness conglomerates and unpredictable disastrous ecological consequences. It’s hard to imagine they will be converted to the cause of genetic modification because the methodology is based loosely on a technique bacteria evolved billions of years ago.
Sexual harassment in the field
Biological anthropologist Kate Clancy has been publishing accounts of sexual harassment in science on her SciAm blog Context and Variation since early in 2012. Now she and three of her anthropology colleagues –Robin G. Nelson, Julienne N. Rutherford, and Katie Hinde–have released their survey accounts of sexual harassment during anthropology and archaeology field work. The paper appeared in PLOS One on July 16, and they blogged about their study at HuffPo.
Knight Science Journalism Tracker Faye Flam has thorough coverage of how the mainstream media handled the news (and how some of them bungled the data.) Her pick for the best story is the one from ClimateWire’s Henry Gass, who related this survey to sexual misbehavior in another discipline with intensive field work, climate science. Is there something about being in the field that encourages gamy conduct?
The survey covered self-reports from 142 men and 516 women across scientific disciplines. The chief findings: 64% of the respondents said they had experienced sexual harassment–defined as inappropriate sexual remarks, comments about physical beauty, or jokes about cognitive sex differences–in the field. Five of these reports came from high school students. Sexual assault (which included unwanted touching as well as outright rape) was reported by 22% of the sample, 26% of the women respondents and 6% of the men.
Men were hit on mostly by their peers. Most of the victims were women students and postdocs and most of the perpetrators were their superiors, principal investigators and site supervisors. Which suggests that this sort of molestation has a lot to do not just with sex but with power relationships.