I was invited to join the team following a conversation at Science Online 2010 with I think Steve Koch, who recommended me to PLOS ONE, and before I knew it I was receiving lots of emails asking me to handle a manuscript.
The nice thing about PLOS ONE is that I get to choose which articles I get to handle, and I am very picky. I think that my role is not just to’ handle’ the manuscript but also make sure that the review process is fair. To do this, I need to understand the manuscript myself. I read every article that I take on and write a ‘mini-review’ of it for myself. When I get the external peer reviews I go through every comment they make against the submitted version, compare the different reviews and revisit my first impression of the manuscript. I have learned a lot from the reviewers, they see things I have missed, and they miss things I have detected. It has been a great insight into the peer review process. And I love not having to pull my crystal ball out to determine whether the article is ‘important’ but just having to decide whether it is scientifically solid.
If the science is fundamentally good the articles are sent back to the authors for either minor or major changes, and then it falls back into my inbox. I have found it really interesting to see how authors deal with the reviewer’s comments. The re-submission is also a lot of work. I need to compare the original and new version, make sure that the authors have done what they say they have done, make sure that all reviewer’s comments have been addressed. And then I decide if I send it back for re-review or not. One thing that I found interesting in this second phase is when authors respond to the reviewer’s comments in the letter but do not incorporate that into the article. It is almost as if the responses are for my and the reviewer’s benefit only. So back it goes asking them to incorporate that rationale into the actual manuscript. Oh well. That means another round. Luckily this does not happen that often.
And then it is time to ‘accept’ the paper – and so back to the manuscript where I go through commas, colons, paragraphs, spelling mistakes, in text citations, reference lists, formatting, image quality, figure legends, etc. This I normally send to the authors together with their acceptance letter but don’t ask for the article to be re-submitted.
The main challenge I find with the process is time management.
When I get the request to handle an article, I accept or nor based on how much time I have to process the article. That is all good. Except that I cannot predict when the reviews, resubmissions, etc will eventually happen – and many times these articles ‘ready for decision’ show up in my inbox at a time when I cannot give it the full attention it deserves. Let alone being able to predict when the revised version will be submitted! I find it impossible to plan ahead for this, especially since I have very little control over a lot of my time commitments (like the days I need to lecture, submit exam questions, mark exams). So if an article arrives while I am somewhere at a conference with limited internet connection… How can I plan for this?
Finding reviewers is another challenge. Sometimes they are hard to find. Nothing as discouraging as finding the “reviewer declined…” emails in my inbox indicating that it is back to the system to do something that I thought was done and dusted. The other day someone asked what is a reasonable amount of reviewing one should do a year? My answer was that one should probably at minimum return the number of reviews provided for one’s articles. Say I publish 3 articles a year, each with 3 reviews, then I should not start complaining about reviewing until I have reviewed at least 9 articles. (of course, one can factor in rejection rate, number of authors, etc) but a tit for tat trade-off seems like a fair expectation. So then why is it so hard to find reviewers? Come on people – if it was your paper getting delayed you’d be sending letters to the journal asking how come the article shows as still sitting with the Editor!
And that is the other thing I learned. Editors don’t just sit on papers because they are lazy. There are many reasons why handling an article may take more or less time. In some cases, after receiving the reviews I feel that something has been raised that needs a specialist to look at a specific aspect of the paper. Sometimes I need a second opinion because there is too little agreement between reviewers. Sometimes the reviewers don’t submit in the agreed time. There are many reasons why an article can be delayed, and so what I learned is to be patient with the editors when I send my papers for publication.
But despite the headaches, the stress and the struggle of being an Academic Editor, it is also an extremely rewarding experience. I keep learning more about science because I see a range of articles before they take their final shape, because I get to look into the discussion of what is good and what is weak. And I get to be part of what makes science great: trying to put out the best we can produce.
It is unfortunate that this process is locked up. I think that there is a lot to learn from it. I think that students and early career scientists would really benefit from seeing the process in articles that are not their own, how variable the quality of the reviews are, what dealing well with reviewers comments and suggestions looks like. And the public too would benefit from seeing what this peer review is all about – what the strengths and weaknesses of the process are and what having been peer reviewed really means.
So, back to Open Access week. Access to the final product is really good. Access to the process of peer review can make understanding the literature even better, because it exposes a part of the process of science that is also worth sharing.